• Home   /  
  • Archive by category "1"

Reproductive System Male Female Essay

The Reproductive System Essay

The Reproductive System

The reproductive system occurs in both male and female.

Like in plants it is the male gamete that needs to be transferred to
the female gamete. The female gamete is fertilised and develops inside
the mother’s body so the reproductive systems of both males and
females are highly adapted for this.

Production of sperm is called spermatogenesis.

It occurs at puberty and for the rest of there life.

It takes place in the gonads of the male - the testes. Over 100
million can be made in one day!

Each testis is composed of numerous tiny tubes called seminiferous
tubules. It is in the walls of these tubules that sperm production
actually takes place.

Development begins in the outer side of the wall in a layer of cells
called the germinal epithelium. As the immature sperm cells become
more mature they move to the inner side and break way into the lumen
of the tubule to be carried away to the epididymis for storage. The
process of this production is shown in the next two diagrams.

In between the tubules, inside the testes, are interstitial cells
called Leydig cells. These secrete the hormone testosterone.

There are also blood vessels in close proximity, delivering nutrients
and carrying away some testosterone to other target cells for the
development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, e.g.
facial and pubic hair, deepening of the voice. The testosterone also
stimulates the cells inside the testis involved in spermatogenesis.

Hormonal control of spermatogenesis

The control centres are the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus in
the brain.

The hypothalamus secretes GnRH (gonadotrophin releasing hormone). This
is released into the blood and stimulates the anterior lobe of the
pituitary gland.

The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland secretes ICSH (interstitial
cell stimulating hormone).

ICSH: this stimulates the leydig cells that produce testosterone.

FSH: this stimulates the seminiferous tubules, including the Sertoli
cells. They produce sperm in response.

Note: Testosterone also acts on the seminiferous tubules and
stimulates sperm production.

The testosterone feeds back to the hypothalamus and pituitary gland to
switch off GnRH and ICSH release.

The Sertoli cells produce a hormone called inhibin that feeds back to
the pituitary gland to switch off FSH release.

Since the action of the interstitial cells and Sertoli cells are
inhibited, less testosterone and inhibin are released as a result. The
inhibition of the hypothalamus and pituitary is lifted and the process
can start again. Due to the levels of the hormones and their effects,
the process is not noticeably cyclical – there aren’t noticeable peaks
and troughs in the levels of the hormones.

Female

The production of eggs is called...

Loading: Checking Spelling

0%

Read more

Practical Report on human sexual reproduction.

764 words - 3 pages BIOLOGY 2: PRACTICAL REPORTHUMAN SEXUAL REPRODUCTIONReproduction is the generation of new individuals of the same species. In asexual reproduction individuals are derived from one parent and no special reproductive structures are involved. The simplest form is fission, occurring mostly in unicellular organisms. Simple multicellular...

Endocrine Disruptors Essay

1726 words - 7 pages Endocrine Disruptors During recent years, numerous newspaper and magazine articles have suggested that humans may be at risk because small amounts of well known environmental contaminants, such as dioxin, PCBs and DDT, can affect hormone levels. Hormones are produced by the endocrine system as regulators of biological function in target organs. Because hormones play a critical role in early development, toxicological effects on the endocrine...

RH Law in the Philippines

3836 words - 15 pages Are the guiding principles found in Responsible Parenthood, Reproductive Health and Population and Development Bill based on Christianity's Natural Law or on social conventions during the time the bill was made?The Responsible Parenthood, Reproductive Health and Population and Development Bill has become a big issue in the Philippines. It has been debated by different groups and institutions that created the two...

REPRODUCTIVE CLONING CAN SAVE OUR LIVES IN THE FUTURE

2540 words - 10 pages As years pass, more and more gadgets, machines, forms of transportation and foods are being improved because of the technological advancements. Even the life of humans is improved by the years, where the life expectancy is increasing because of the developed medical research, medicines, and medical equipment. However, developed biomedical methods such as cloning are controversial, and in fact 93% of all Americans oppose cloning. Because of the...

Frog Body Parts and Functions

623 words - 2 pages Frog Body Parts and Functions Anatomy of a Frog's Head External Anatomy of the Frog Functions of the External Anatomy of the Frog • Nictitating Membrane - A transparent part of a frog's lower eyelid that moves over the eye to clean it and protect it. • Cloacal Opening - Opening of cloaca...

The Presence of the Human Vomeronasal Organ (VNO) and Its Function

2476 words - 10 pages The presence of the human Vomeronasal Organ (VNO) and its function The vomeronasal organ (VNO), also known as Jacobson’s organ, is an auxiliary olfactory sense organ found in many animals. It is also the first stage of their accessory olfaction systems and is the sense organ involved in the Flehman response. In many mammalian species, a portion of the olfactory neuroepithelium is discretely organized into a VNO [1]. Animals use their...

Government Control of the Female Body

1896 words - 8 pages Government Control of the Female Body Internationally, issues revolving around the female body and reproduction are extremely controversial. For a woman, her body is a very private matter. At the same time, however, a woman's body and her reproduction rights are the center of attention in many public debates. Several questions regarding women's reproductive rights remain unanswered. How much control do women have over their bodies? What...

A Disease of Concern for Females - Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

837 words - 3 pages As females we are taught to maintain a healthy body by eating the right foods, exercising and scheduling regular checkups with the doctor. However, there are several diseases that affect the human female body. Pelvic inflammatory disease is one of many diseases that affect the female reproductive system, and it is a disease women should be concerned with. Pelvic inflammatory disease is an infectious disease that invades the female reproductive...

Cyborg M(others): Feminism and the New Reproductive Technologies

3068 words - 12 pages The technological regulation of bodies and the control of reproduction are central issues within the sociology of the body. The existence of such technologies has changed and transformed the way we understand the physical body, and has in turn created spaces where new truths about the body have arisen. As such, the issues raised by reproductive technologies are central to any consideration of the sociology of the body. However, it is not the...

Abortion

1549 words - 6 pages Over the last thirty years, abortion policies have been the most controversial of all political and legal issues in the United States. Each state has its own laws and regulations concerning abortion. These laws mainly refer to the conditions in which abortion is legal, the requirements for minors who make the decision of having an abortion, and the government's funding for people having an abortion. The United States government has played a...

Earthworm Lab Report

1504 words - 6 pages ~General Information~ Worms are the most complex animals that I have studied. They are classified into three different phyla. There is a small number of species(20,000) of worms but there are a large number of worms. All worms have three layers of cells. They also have true organs and organ systems, and a complex nervous system.The Lumbricus terrestris earthworm is a segmented worm in the

Ascaris reproduces sexually and is dioecious. It shows sexual dimorphism.

Image Source: 185.26.182.219

(1)Male reproductive organs:

These organs are confined to the posterior half of pseudocoel and include following organs.

1.Testis:

Male ascaris is monarchic, possessing a single testis which is long, thin and highly twisted tube like structure.

It occupies most of the pseudocoel in posterior 2/3 of the body. Wall of testis is made up of a single layer of cuboidai cells.

Proximally it is closed and contains germinal zone that produces spermatogonia through budding from a single germinal cell.

The rest of the testis contains a solid axis called cytoplasmic rachis. It serves as a surface of maturation and growth of the sperms.

2.Vas deferens:

Distally testis leads into short and thick twisted tubes, the vas deferens. It is distinguished from testis in having a lumen in place of the rachis.

3.Seminal vesicle:

Vas deferentia are followed by a much thicker, wider, somewhat muscular straight tube, the seminal vesicle. It serves to store mature sperms.

4. Ejaculatory duct:

Terminal part of seminal vesicle narrows to form a highly muscular ejaculatory duct. It joins rectum to form the cloaca. Its wall contains a number of prostatic glands, whose secretion helps in copulation.

5.Penial setae:

Two small contractile penial sacs open dorsally into the cloaca. Each sac contains a small needle like penial orcopulatory seta made up of cuticle.

The spicules protruded and retracted through the cloacal aperture by the action of protractor and retractor muscles of the sac wall spicules help in opening the female gonopore for copulation.

(2) Female reproductive system:

This system is situated in the posterior 2/3 part of the body and consists of ovaries, oviduct, uteri and vagina.

1.Ovaries:

Female Ascaris is didelphic i.e., it has two ovaries two oviducts and two uterus. Each ovary is a long, thin thread-like much twisted tube.

These are also telogenic like the testis. Proximally it bears germinal cell to produce ova. Remaining distal part of the ovary contains cytoplasmic rachis and acts as growth zone for ovum maturation. There is no lumen.

2.Oviduct:

Each ovary leads into a long coiled oviduct of same thickness and similar wall without any external distinction. It has a lumen.

3.Uteri:

Each oviduct followed by a thick and long but straight uterus extending from behind forwards, its wall is thick and formed of an inner layer of tufted secretory cells surrounded by a muscular layer. Uteri serve to store the eggs after fertilization.

4. Vagina:

Anteriorly both uteri bend median wards and join together to form a very short and relatively narrow vagina. Its wall is quite muscular and contractile. Anteriorly it opens out by the midventral transverse slit-like female gonopore or vulva.

One thought on “Reproductive System Male Female Essay

Leave a comment

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *