The Riverside County Probation Department bills itself as one of the most progressive and diversified law enforcement agencies in the U.S. The administrative offices are located in the city of Riverside (the county seat). In addition, there are field services offices in the cities of Banning, Blythe, Corona, Indio, Murrieta, Palm Springs, Perris, Riverside, San Jacinto and Temecula.
The department employs a total of 1,043 sworn and non-sworn employees. Entry-level sworn peace officer positions include adult and juvenile deputy probation officers and deputy corrections officers.
Riverside County Probation Department Hiring Process
Candidates will be contacted to schedule the initial interview at a probation department office. Each step in the hiring process for adult deputy probation officer must be successfully completed before the next event is scheduled. The entire process takes between three and six months and includes the following:
- Oral interview with a two-person panel
- Written essay
- Personal history statement and pre-investigative questionnaire
- Meeting with background investigator
- Background investigation
- Physical exam
- Psychological evaluation
- Truth verification exam
- Job offer
The first six months of employment consist of on-the-job training. Entry level deputy probation officers earn between $19.21 and $31.20 an hour.
How to Apply for the Position of Parole Officer in Riverside County
Candidates for Deputy Probation Officer I and II jobs must be U.S. citizens, at least 21 years of age, possess a California driver’s license, have a bachelor’s degree (preferably in a behavioral science) and have no felony convictions. There are no application forms for those interested in learning how to become probation officers in Riverside County. Interested job candidates must first take an “early assessment test” given by the county Human Relations division.
A list of those who pass the early assessment test is given to the probation department for follow-up. Persons who fail may retake the test after a period of six months. Test schedules and locations are available by phone or email from the Human Relations Division; 951/955-3500; firstname.lastname@example.org.
Volunteer/Internship Programs with the Riverside County Probation Department
There are ample opportunities for volunteers and student interns at all of the Riverside County Probation Department field offices. Volunteers and interns must be at least 18 years old and able to pass a background investigation. All candidates will be interviewed by the volunteer coordinator. For further information and appointment scheduling call the office of the volunteer coordinator at 951/955-2830.
Duties of Adult Deputy Probation Officers in Riverside County, CA
The duties of adult deputy probation officers include:
- Evaluating an offender’s social, behavioral and personal disposition to advise the court on the suitability of probation
- Ensuring offender compliance with court-mandated conditions
- Making office and home visits (including searches and arrests)
- Providing referrals for employment, housing, substance abuse, medical care, etc.
- Writing case documents and court reports
- Participating in drug, gang or sexual offender task forces
- Supervising high-risk, violent probationers (armed probation officers only)
California’s Public Safety Realignment Act of 2011 gave county probation departments the additional responsibility of supervising specific lower-level, non-violent parolees released to reduce prison overcrowding.
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Well come to BUSM2449 International Human Resource Management Lecturer and Coordinator: Dr. Ngan (Nan) Collins Contact details: Location: 80.08.040 Tel: 9925 1312 Email: email@example.com Tutors: Ms. Mara Schilat Dr. Errol Muir Mr. Prikshat Verma Course outline Course description • Takes a critical perspective on the management of human resources in the international context • Is based on international business case studies and IHRM theory, research and practice • Examines HRM practices in the context of different social, cultural, political and economic environments • Through understanding the impacts of globalisation, different industrial relations systems, and HRM policies and philosophies in various countries and how these influence on global business operation. RMIT University BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 1-2011 3 Learning objectives In the course of this subject study, you are expected to: • Understand the importance of people management issues to the global organisation; • Participate in debates about the relationship between human resource management and sustained competitive advantage; • Understand the operation of HR functions in a multinational corporation; • Assess the viability of transferring HRM practices across countries. RMIT University BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 1-2011 4 Learning activities Activities included in this unit to ensure your achieving the learning objectives cover: Lectures; Your own work on individual assignment; Your participation in a group presentation and class discussion; Case studies; and Final examination. RMIT University BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 5 Study materials • Key text: Dowling, Festing & Engle (2008) • Other useful texts as references (see the unit outline) • Compulsory readings (login myRMIT for the digitalised version) (http://www.rmit.edu.au/online) • Supplementary readings • Journal papers • Lecture notes • Other on-line resources RMIT University BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 6 Assessment Item 1: Individual essay (40%) Item 3: Final examination (60%) RMIT University BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 7 Case study and individual essay • Due date: Friday afternoon of week 7 • Assigned one of the 6 chapters in Royle and Towers (2002) ‘Labour Relations in the Global Fast - Food Industry’ book. - This book can be accessed and read electronically via the RMIT Library website) - The particular countries are: the United States, Germany, Netherland, Russia, Singapore and Australia. • Analyse the case within your self-study hours and in tutorial classes with your group members. • Plan and write your essay. RMIT University BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 8 Questions to assist your essay writing 1. What are the main elements (parties, laws, processes) of the industrial relations system of your allocated country? 2. Arising from these elements, what challenges exist for the global fast food companies in seeking to have a standard approach to HRM adopted internationally? To answer this consider: –What elements are compatible with the standard approach to HRM – What elements work against the adoption of standardised methods of HRM in the fast food industry? BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 9 • Case 1, The United States • Reading: Leidner, R 2002, ‘Fast food work in the United States’, in Royle, T & Towers, B (eds) Labour relations in the global fast food industry, Routledge, London, pp. 8-23. • Case 2, Germany • Reading: Royle, T 2002, ‘Undermining the system? Labour relations in the German fast-food industry’, in Royle, T & Towers, B (eds) Labour relations in the global fast food industry, Routledge, London, pp. 76-101. • Case 3, Singapore • Reading: Pereira, A 2002, ‘ “McAunties” and “McUncles”: labour relations in Singapores’ fast-food industry’, in Royle, T & Towers, B (eds) Labour relations in the global fast food industry, Routledge, London, pp. 136-53. • Case 4, Russia • Reading: Shekshinia, S, Puffer, S & McCarthy, D 2002, ‘To Russia with Big Macs: labour relations in the Russian fast-food industry’, in Royle, T & Towers, B (eds) Labour relations in the global fast food industry, Routledge, London, pp. 117-35. • Case 5, Australia • Reading: Allan, C, Bamber, G & Timo, N 2002, ‘Employment relations in the Australian fast-food industry’, in Royle, T & Towers, B (eds) Labour relations in the global fast food industry, Routledge, London, pp. 154-71. • Case 6, The Netherlands • Benders, J, Bekker, S & Mol, B 2002, ‘Consensus and confrontation: fast food in the Netherlands’, in Royle, T & Towers, B (eds) Labour relations in the global fast food industry, Routledge, London, pp. 102-16. 10 A good case analysis has the following qualities: • focusing on the major themes of the case; • linking the case to the theoretical framework discussed in the text or reading; • addressing main issues or illustrating best practices; • recommending solutions to the issues or suggesting the possible application of the practices to other contexts. BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 11 Individual essay • A research paper of 2500 words: 40% • Due date: 5 pm, Friday of week 7 • Referencing to work of others is critically important demonstrate examples of how to by your lecturer –address the issue of plagiarism (check the policy on http://www.rmit.edu.au/browse;ID=v9laqcrrf7gf;STATUS=A? QRY=plagiarism%20policy&STYPE=ENTIRE) –use of Turnitin software to detect plagiarism - user pin and password are assigned) • Conforming to essay guidelines RMIT University BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 1-2011 12 Essay questions Compare and contrast the similarities and differences between the human resource and employment relations strategies and processes adopted in the fast food industries in the United States, Germany and one other country. 1. What does your comparison reveal about the influence of the local country culture and institutional factors on the strategies and processes? 2. What are the lessons learned from this comparison for attempts by the fast food industry to develop a workable international model of HR/ER for specific national country settings? BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 13 Turnitin Used • Trial the software before your final submission • Avoid the last minutes submission • Re-submit next day if the first time was not get through • Do not contact your lecturer for any Turnitin problems RMIT University BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 1-2011 14 Essay Guidelines • use of consistent referencing style (Harvard system as described in RMIT Reference Guide). • a well structured essay contains introduction, body, conclusion and references with minimum headings. • 2500-word can be written within 10 pages, including references. RMIT University BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 1-2011 15 A Good Essay • demonstrates that you carefully argue your case and the statements you make are justified with appropriate references. • shows that your discussion is grounded in the relevant field of research. • refers to cited materials, which are analysed in a critical and reflective manner –citing scholarly journal papers, NOT Wikipedia or website materials without adequate citation RMIT University BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 16 Submission and Feedback • Essay should be submitted into Learning Hub by 5pm of the due date. • Late submissions will be automatically penalised at a rate of 10% of possible mark, per day. Assignments will not be accepted more than five days late. • Feedbacks from lecturers are included in the marking sheets. RMIT University BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 17 Marking criteria for individual essay Essays are marked according to two principles. First are matters of style: use of bibliographic conventions, style, grammar and spelling, and the organisation of the essay. Second are matters of content: amount of work in the essay, quality of arguments, application of theory and background knowledge to compare the pattern of HRM and the strategies and to evaluate them. Both are important, and the best essays are best on both counts. ESSAY EVALUATION: Poor Average Good Excellent A. STYLE: 1. Bibliography – reading & conventions 2. Grammar and style 3. Structure of essay - Introduction - Organisation - Conclusion B. CONTENT 4. Extent of research 5. Coherence of argument 6. Comprehension of theoretical principles 7. Application of principles to the proposals 8. Critical evaluation Comments: RMIT University BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 18 Final examination To prepare, ensure that you are able to answer all discussion questions from your tutorials. The exam format will be: • You will be required to answer six out of ten essay questions (6 x 10 marks). • Total marks: 60 RMIT University BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 19 All the best for your study! Introduce your partner to the class Instructions • Find a partner • Take turns to tell your partner about your self –Your name –How you became interested in this subject –Your current occupation and the industry you are in –Your favourite TV program –The best book you have read in the last year • Take turns to introduce your partner to the class BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 21 Introduction to IHRM • What is IHRM? • Differences between domestic and international HRM • Strategic HRM in multinational enterprises BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 22 What is Human Resource Management (HRM)? • Human resource management is an integrated set of personnel activities, linked strategically with organisational objectives These activities include: –human resource planning –staffing (recruitment, selection, placement) –performance management –training and development –compensation (remuneration) and benefits –industrial relations (Nankervis, et al, 2011) BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 23 Defining international HRM • The field of IHRM is about understanding, researching, applying and revising all human resource activities in their internal and external contexts as they impact the process of managing human resources in enterprises throughout the global environment to enhance the experience of multiple stakeholders, including investors, customers, employees, partners, suppliers, environment and society. (Briscoe & Schuler, 2004, p. 20) BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 24 And... The interplay among three HRM dimensions (HR activities, types of employees, and countries of operation) in an international environment. –the broad HR activities –the national or country categories involved in international HRM activities –the three categories of employees of an international firm BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 25 Figure 1-2 The three dimensions of IHRM BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 26 Differences between domestic HRM & IHRM The complexity of IHRM can be attributed to six factors: 1. More HR activities 2. The need for a broader perspective 3. More involvement in employees’ personal lives 4. Changes in emphasis as the workforce mix of expatriates and locals varies 5. Risk exposure 6. Broader external influences BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 27 Figure 1-4 A model of the variables that moderate differences between domestic and international HRM BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 28 External Factors Culture environment • Culture is members of a group or society share a distinct way of life with common values, attitudes, & behaviours that are transmitted over time in a gradual, yet dynamic, process (Phatak, 1995) • The cultural differences influence people in a work environment (Harzing & Ruysseveldt, 2006) –Culture vs nation, –Emic - etic distinction, and –divergence/convergence theories • Culture awareness in work place BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 29 Internal Factors Industry type • global - a series of linked domestic industries, rivals compete on a worldwide basis • multi-domestic- a collection of domestic industries where domestic strategies are importance. Internal attitudes • international orientation of senior managers BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 30 Figure 1-5 Strategic HRM in multinational enterprises BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 31 Strategy and IHRM Different stages of business strategies: • Domestic stage; • International stage; • Multinational stage or global integration stage. Different patterns of cross-cultural interaction. BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 32 Conclusion 1. Relationship between culture and International Human Resource Management 2. Relationship between business strategy and IHRM BUSM2449 IHRM-Semester 2-2012 33 BUSM2449 International Human Resource Management Lecture 2 IHRM: Organisational context and cross border alliances Lecture outline 1. Review expatriate management evolution 2. Management demands of international growth 3. The path to global status 4. Control mechanism 5. Cross - border alliances and MNEs BUSMIHRM2449 - Semester 2 2 What is an expatriate? • An employee who is working and temporarily residing in a foreign country • Some firms prefer to use the term ‘international assignees’ • Expatriates are PCNs from the parent country operations, TCNs transferred to either HQ or another subsidiary, and HCNs transferred into the parent country BUSMIHRM2449 - Semester 2 3 Figure 1-2 The three dimensions of IHRM BUSMIHRM2449 - Semester 2 4 Figure 1-3 International assignments create expatriates BUSMIHRM2449 - Semester 2 5 Figure 2-1 Management demands of international growth BUSMIHRM2449 - Semester 2 6 The path to global status Organizational structures change due to: • Strain imposed by growth and geographical spread. • The need for improved coordination and control across business units. • The constraints imposed by host-government regulations on ownership and equity. BUSMIHRM2449 - Semester 2 7 Figure 2-2 Stages of internationalization BUSMIHRM2449 – Semester 2 8 Exporting • Typically the initial stage of international operations –Usually handled by an intermediary (foreign agent or distributor) –Role of HR department unclear at this stage BUSMIHRM2449 - Semester 2 9 Sales subsidiary • Replacing foreign agents/distributors with own through sales or branch offices/subsidiaries • May be prompted by: –Problems with foreign agents –More confidence in international activities –Desire for greater control –Give greater support to exporting activities • PCNs may be selected, leading to some HR involvement BUSMIHRM2449 - Semester 2 10 International division • Creation of a separate division in which all international activities are grouped • Resembles ‘miniature replica’ of domestic organization • Subsidiary managers report to head of international division • Objectives regarding foreign activities may determine approach to staffing of key positions –Expatriate management role of corporate HR BUSMIHRM2449 - Semester 2 11 Global product/area division • Strain of sheer size may prompt structural change to either of these global approaches • Choice typically influenced by: –The extent to which key decisions are to be made at the parent country headquarters or at the subsidiary units (centralization versus decentralization) –Type or form of control exerted by parent over subsidiary BUSMIHRM2449 - Semester 2 12 Different countries take different paths • MNEs may develop global capabilities by an emphasis on cultural responsiveness regional or area division structures BUSMIHRM2449 - Semester 2 13 Control mechanisms • Control through personal relationships • Control through corporate culture BUSMIHRM2449 - Semester 2 14 Figure 2-9 The role of MNE culture of origin BUSMIHRM2449 - Semester 2 15 Figure 2-10 Control strategies for multinational firms BUSMIHRM2449 - Semester 2 16 Cross-border mergers and acquisitions • A merger: the result of an agreement between two companies to join their operations together. • An acquisition: one company buys another company with the interest of controlling the activities of the combined operations. BUSMIHRM2449 - Semester 2 17 Summary • The organisational context and IHRM activities; • Control and coordination aspects; • The affects of international growth on the firm’s approaches to HRM. BUSMIHRM2449 - Semester 2 18 BUSM2449 International Human Resources Lecture 3 International recruitment and selection Lecture outline • Determination of staffing choices • Different IHRM staffing approaches • Issues in staff selection • Expatriate selection • Costs of expatriate failure BUSM2449-IHR-Semester 2 2 Figure 4-1 Determinants of staffing choices BUSM2449-IHR-Semester 2 3 Different IHRM approaches • Ethnocentric; • Polycentric; • Regiocentric; • Geocentric. BUSM2449-IHR-Semester 2 4 Ethnocentric Few Foreign subsidiaries have any autonomy; strategic decisions are made at headquarters. Key positions at the domestic & foreign operations are held by headquarters’ management personnel, eg. subsidiaries are managed by expatriates from the home country (PCNs). BUSM2449-IHR-Semester 2 5 Polycentric The MNC treats each subsidiary as a distinct national entity with some decisionmaking autonomy. Subsidiaries are usually managed by local nationals (HCNs) who are seldom promoted to positions at headquarters. BUSM2449-IHR-Semester 2 6 Regiocentric It utilizes a wider pool of managers but in a limited way. Personnel may move outside their countries but only within the particular geographic region. Regional managers may not be promoted to headquarter positions but enjoy a degree of regional autonomy in decision making. BUSM2449-IHR-Semester 2 7 Geocentric A worldwide approach to MNC’s operations, recognizing that each part makes a unique contribution with its unique competence. Nationality is ignored in favour of ability. PCNs, HCNs and TCNs can be found in key positions anywhere. BUSM2449-IHR-Semester 2 8 Roles of an expatriate • as an agent of direct control • as an agent of socialization • as network builders • as boundary spanners • as language nodes • transfer of competence and knowledge BUSM2449-IHR-Semester 2 9 Staffing definition • Hiring and placing people in positions where they can perform effectively is a goal of most organizations, whether domestic or international. • Possible recruitment: PCN, HCN, & TCN. BUSM2449-IHR-Semester 2 10 Table 3.1: Advantages and Disadvantages of Recruitment from Different Nationality Groups PCN HCN TCN Advantages - cheap for recruitment - know corporate culture - know the job expectations - fulfil skills requirement - save time for recruitment - cheap for recruitment - cheap for compensation - more culturally appropriate to host country - better understanding of host country’s market and legal system - trust in local staff - longer time commitment to the position (*) - wider choice - fulfil skills requirement - know the job expectations Disadvantages - less choices - less objective - no long term commitment to the position - unfamiliar with host country’s culture, market and legal system - more expensive for compensation - involved with family issues - less choice - skill limitations - unfamiliar to corporate culture’s understanding - limited expectations of the job - time needed for recruitment - involved with host labour policy - expensive for recruitment - time needed for recruitment - unfamiliar to corporate culture’s understanding - unfamiliar with host country’s culture, market and legal system - involved with family issues - more expensive for compensation (*) BUSM2449-IHR-Semester 2 11 Strategic business objectives What is to be achieved and how. Human resource planning •Determine number and type of jobs to be filled •Match HR supply with job openings Job analysis Collect job information Job description •Job title •Duties and responsibilities •Relationships •Know-how •Accountability •Authority •Special circumstances Job specification •Experience •Qualifications •Skills, abilities, knowledge •Personal qualities •Special requirements Recruitment BUSM2449-IHR-Semester 1-2011 Identify and attract a pool of qualified candidates. 12 Recruitment It is defined as searching for and obtaining potential job candidates in sufficient numbers & quality so that the organization can select the most appropriate people to fill its job needs. BUSM2449-IHR-Semester 2 13 Selection The process of gathering information for the purposes of evaluating & deciding whom should be employed in particular jobs. BUSM2449-IHR-Semester 2 14 Types of international assignments • • • • • • • • Short term up to 3 months Extended up to 1 year Long term (traditional expatriate assignment) 1 to 5 years Some non-standard assignments: Commuter go home every one to two weeks Rotational commute for set period followed by break in home country Contractual specific skills employees hired for 6 to 12 months on specific projects Virtual employee manages international responsibilities from home country base BUSM2449-IHR-Semester 2 15 Figure 5-3 Factors in expatriate selection BUSM2449-IHR-Semester 2 16 Expatriate selection Factors moderating performance • Length of assignment • Willingness to move • Work-environment related factors BUSM2449-IHR-Semester 2 17 Expatriate selection (cont.) Other factors in expatriate selection • Inter-company networking • Job-hunting assistance • Intra-company employment • Support for ‘commuter marriages’ • On-assignment career support • Dual-career couples Selecting TCNs • Rationale • TCNs’ needs and considerations • Compensation may differ • Social networks BUSM2449-IHR-Semester 2 18 Expatriate selection (cont.) Selecting HCNs Equal employment opportunity issues • Rationale • Localization policies • Promotion and career opportunities beyond national boundaries • Requires an awareness of differences in the laws of different countries; • Fundamental human rights issues. BUSM2449-IHR-Semester 2 19 Table 5-3 Barriers to females taking international assignments BUSM2449-IHR-Semester 2 20 Costs of expatriate failure • Direct Costs: airfare; relocation expenses; training; compensation package • Indirect Costs: loss of market share; change impact on local staff; drop of moral; drop of productivity; impact on expatriates BUSM2449-IHR-Semester 2 21 Summary • Effective recruitment and selection, and then maintaining and retaining capable people for international business operations. BUSM2449-IHR-Semester 2 22 BUSM4125 International Human Resources Lecture 4 Developing a global workforce: International Training & Development Lecture outline • • • • • Global labour market and issues of training and development Expatriate training Components of effective pre-departure training programs Developing staff through international assignments Strategies for developing a global workforce RMIT-School of Management 2 Global labour market and issues of training and development • Competition in the global market; • International oriented personnel; • Training and development are an integral part of an effective performance management system. RMIT-School of Management 3 Training and development Training aims to improve current work skills and behaviour Development aims to increase abilities in relation to future positions or assignments, eg. managerial position or international assignments RMIT-School of Management 4 Expatriate training • Internal & external recruitment require different training. • Pre-departure training: Objective is to help people (including the spouse/partner and children of the manager) cope with unexpected events in a new culture. RMIT-School of Management 5 Components of effective pre-departure training programs • Preliminary visits • Language training • Practical assistance • Cultural awareness training • TCN and HCN expatriate training RMIT-School of Management 6 Cultural awareness programs Area studies programs that include • Environmental briefings & cultural orientation; • Cultural assimilators; • Sensitivity training; • Field experiences. (Tung, 1981) RMIT-School of Management 7 Cross-cultural training When people are working outside their native land, it seems that Germans become more German and Japanese become more Japanese. Cultural diversity training program under ‘Valuing diversity’ or ‘Managing diversity’. RMIT-School of Management 8 Figure 6-1 The Mendenhall, Dunbar and Oddou cross-cultural training model RMIT-School of Management 9 9 Figure 6-2 Cultural awareness training and assignment performance RMIT-School of Management 10 10 Training and development for HCNs and TCNs • Cheap labour may not be cheaper: costs on training in order to match the requirement of skills. • International training of HCNs: at HQ or regional HQ, or home-based subsidiary. RMIT-School of Management 11 Training and development for HCNs and TCNs (cont.) • Types of training To facilitate specific tasks and firm-based training (certain period for key employees) Particular skills & management Transforming corp. system. RMIT-School of Management 12 Developing staff through International assignments • Individual development: International assignments prefer as job rotation or management development • Developing international teams: International assignments often is the ‘training ground’ for international ‘cadre’ RMIT-School of Management 13 Figure 6-3 Developing international teams through international assignments RMIT-School of Management 14 14 Strategies for developing a global workforce Developing global leadership team • PCNs, HCNs & TCNs are available to go anywhere in the world. • To build cross-cultural teams, seminar & lectures, adventurebased exercises, and field trips. Individual career development • International assignment leads to management development potential. • It is perceived as career advancement: a primary motive for accepting an overseas posting. RMIT-School of Management 15 Summary • Pre-departure training prevents costly mistakes. • International teams, talent pool, and expertise. • Career advancement and long-term development. RMIT-School of Management 16 BUSM2449 International Human Resources Lecture 6 International career management: re-entry and career issues Lecture outline • • • • • The repatriation process Individual reactions to re-entry Multinational responses Designing a repatriation program Strategic repatriation and knowledge management RMIT-School of Management 2 Figure 8-1 Expatriation includes repatriation RMIT-School of Management 3 The repatriation process One stage of the expatriation processes: the activity of bringing the expatriate back to the home country. 1) Preparation; 2) Physical relocation; 3) Transition; 4) Readjustment. RMIT-School of Management 4 The repatriation process (cont.) 1) Preparation Involves developing plans for the future & gathering information about the new position (a checklist & training). 2) Physical relocation • It refers to removing personal effects, breaking ties with colleagues & friends, and travelling back to home. • Comprehensive & personalised relocation assistance is useful. RMIT-School of Management 5 The repatriation process (cont.) 3) Transition Means settling into temporary accommodation where necessary, making arrangements for housing & schooling and carrying out other administrative tasks. 4) Readjustment Involves coping with reverse culture shock and career demands. RMIT-School of Management 6 Individual reactions to re-entry The re-entry process is a complex interaction of job-related factors and social factors RMIT-School of Management 7 Figure 8-3 Factors influencing repatriate adjustment RMIT-School of Management 8 Multinational responses • The problem of unawareness of the challenges facing repatriated managers. • Increasing needs for MNEs to provide repatriation programs. RMIT-School of Management 9 Reasons for inability to provide such programs • Lack of expertise; • Cost of program to train repatriates; • No perceived need for repatriation training by top management; • Other factors: size, organisational responsibility, nationality, etc. RMIT-School of Management 10 Designing a repatriation program • Preparation, physical relocation, transition information (what the company will help with); • Financial and tax assistance (including benefit and tax changes, loss of overseas allowance); • Re-entry position and career path assistance; • Reverse culture shock (including family disorientation); RMIT-School of Management 11 Designing (cont.) • School systems and children’s education (including adaptation); • Workplace changes (eg. corporate culture, structure, decentralisation); • Stress management, communication-related training; • Establishing networking opportunities; • Help forming new social contacts. RMIT-School of Management 12 Designing (cont.) Mentor Duties: 1) Maintaining contact with expat; 2) Ensuring expat. are kept up-to-date with developments in the home country; 3) Ensuring expat. are retained in existing management development; 4) Assisting expat. with the repatriation process. RMIT-School of Management 13 Strategic repatriation and knowledge management Repatriate knowledge categories: • Market specific knowledge • Personal skills • Job-related management skills • Network knowledge • General management capacity RMIT-School of Management 14 Knowledge management (cont.) Three major issues that MNEs need to consider to develop successfully their repatriation strategy: 1) Individuals have different career goals 2) Differences across types of global assignments 3) The integration among selection, performance management and repatriation systems. RMIT-School of Management 15 ‘Best practice’ recommendation for successful repatriation - Prior to going on assignment - During the assignment - Immediately receding repatriation - After repatriation RMIT-School of Management 16 Summary • Re-entry readjustment: requires the broader socio-cultural context of the home country; • Capitalising and valuing overseas experiences; • Building a cohesive system and network for repatriation and knowledge management system. RMIT-School of Management 17 BUSM2449 International Human Resources Lecture 7 IHRM in the host – country context: Cross culture issues Lecture Outline • Standardization and localization of HRM practices • Factors driving standardization of work practices • Factors driving localization of work practices • Culture and cross-culture RMIT University 2 Figure 9-1 Balancing the standardization and localization of HRM in MNEs RMIT University 3 Standardization of Work Practices • Depends on –Receptivity of local workforce to adhere to corporate norms of behaviour –Effectiveness of expatriates as agents of socialization –Whether localization is timely (not just prompted by cost considerations) –Appropriateness to the local environment RMIT University 4 Factors Influencing Standardisation • Host-country culture and workplace environment • Mode of operation involved • Size and maturity of the firm • Relative importance of the subsidiary RMIT University 5 Factors Driving Localisation: Host-country Culture • Work behaviour is culturally determined • Whether corporate culture supersedes or supplants other ‘cultures’ is a subject of much debate • Often, what is meant by corporate culture translates into universal work behaviours – standardisation of work practices RMIT University 6 Figure 9-2 Institutional effects on MNEs RMIT University 7 • “Cultural” awareness and sensitivity of international business people • Conceptual cultural differences RMIT University 9 The Notion of ‘Culture’ • Definition: Culture is a set of socially constructed meanings that shape the behavior of people in a particular society –Cultural ‘glasses’ is a particular perspective –With the globalization of business and economics, cultures are affected by other cultures and some overlapping takes place. However, particular cultural ‘perspectives’ remain despite some homogenization RMIT University 10 OZ RMIT University 12 OZ RMIT University 13 OZ RMIT University 14 • Hofstede’s dimension provide one theoretical framework to assist us to understand differences and complexity • These categories are not rigid, but are fluid and change with the individual and with time RMIT University 15 Conclusion • The importance of a balance of HRM standardisation and localisation in MNEs • Knowing the basic assumptions of a culture provides an understanding of the principles on which other levels rest RMIT University 16 Film: Management in Chinese Culture • What are the key characteristics of Chinese business culture presented in the documentary? • Highlight the main differences between western and Chinese business cultures as described in the documentary • Have Quanzi and Confucianism been practised in the IHRM context? If yes , please give an example RMIT University 17 BUSM2449 International Human Resource Management Wednesday 20th April Lecture 8 International Industrial Relations Lecture outline • Dynamics of IR systems • IR/HRM in East Asia • IR/HRM in Europe • IR/HRM in USA RMIT-School of Management 2 Factors underlying differences in structure of IR system 1. The mode of technology and industrial organization at critical stages of union development 2. Methods of union regulation by government 3. Ideological divisions within the trade union movement 4. The influence of religious organizations on trade union development 5. Managerial strategies for labor relations in large corporations RMIT-School of Management 3 Key issues in international IR 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Industrial relations policies and practices of multinational firms The degree of inter-subsidiary production integration Nationality of ownership of the subsidiary International HRM approach MNE prior experience in industrial relations Subsidiary characteristics Characteristics of the home product market Management attitudes towards unions RMIT-School of Management 4 Table 10-2 Union membership for selected countries RMIT-School of Management 5 IR/HRM in East Asia RMIT-School of Management 6 Cultural traditions and the impact on HRM in East Asia Cultural traditions In ancient China (770-221 BC), a great debate ‘Contention of a hundred schools of thought’. • Confucianism: living philosophy harmony. • Daoism: religion (the essence of Oneness); • Buddhism from India to China around 100 AD. RMIT-School of Management 7 In practice Examples • harmony • collectivism • conformity (respect each other) •hierarchy & authority; •leadership; •teamwork; •attitude to conflict; •win-win > win-lose. • reciprocity (guanxi) RMIT-School of Management 8 The basic element of HRM in East Asia • Flexibility; • Strategic planning -> common goal; • Leadership - the quality of CEO & managers; • Collectivism: team work, information sharing, QCC; • Harmony; • Hierarchy; • Doctrine & training (management autonomy & on-the-job training); • Discipline (reward- & punishment-system). RMIT-School of Management 9 The evolution of IR in the ‘West’ Three main periods: • The pre-industrial revolution period (1400s): Less formalized IR practices • The industrial revolution in Great Britain (1700s) and ended in US in the 1970s: the development of IR during this period coincided with the establishment of a factory system and the emergence of modern corporations and managerial capitalism • The 1970s and continuing until the present day: characterized by the emergence of contemporary HRM functions RMIT-School of Management 10 IR/HRM in Europe RMIT-School of Management 11 Cultural and historical impacts in the ‘West’ • Ancient Greek and Roman cultures (500BC-200BC) • Christianity (from 324 AD, Constantine Era) • Industrial Revolution • The influence of ‘Japanese Management’ in the 1970s. RMIT-School of Management 12 EU and Social Policy The formation of EEC and EU • European Economic Community (EEC): created in 1957 by 6 countries, known as a common market; • EU (Nov. 1993); • European Social Charter; • Social policy: as the development of norms, rules, structures and instruments related to work, income and the health of workers (labour law and policy). RMIT-School of Management 13 Common themes in EU • emerging new values and issues; • ageing population; • unemployment; • innovation and technology; • common market with unequal conditions (‘Social Dumping’); • ‘post-modernist’ state + multi-cultural challenges. RMIT-School of Management 14 More collective oriented approach towards HRM in EU –the involvement of union leaders and line managers • new economy requires innovative HRM • HRM in a strategic alliance • cooperation process and decision-making in cross-cultural environment RMIT-School of Management 15 IR/HRM in the US Dramatic changes in the American workplace: • Global and domestic competition; • Work systems innovations; • Increasing productivity, reducing costs and improving quality; • Increasing the number of part-time and casual workers, real wage decrease, downsizing and lack of job security. RMIT-School of Management 16 History of IR in USA • • • • • • 1790s: pre-factory production and unions 1850s-60s: initial factory production 1900: initial mass production (Fordism and Taylorism) 1929-35: depression and initial union movement 1940s + 50s, growth of unions and collective bargaining. Post WWII boom, strong union movement in the 60s & 70s. • 1980s-90s, ideological shift and decline of unions. RMIT-School of Management 17 RMIT-School of Management 18 RMIT-School of Management 19 RMIT-School of Management 20 The nature of IR/HRM Non-union sector • Characterized by broad management discretion & control over the terms & conditions of employment. • ‘Positive’ managerial outlook: HRM; various reasons firms ‘should’ offer favourable conditions of employment to employees. • Mostly private white-collar employment. RMIT-School of Management 21 The nature of IR/HRM (cont.) Unionized sector • Openly adversarial relations between labour & management; • Collective bargaining agreement (eg. United Steel Workers); • The challenge to the basic adversarial nature of ER in the US in the late 1980s and 1990s. RMIT-School of Management 22 HR investment and innovation • Significant increase in expenditure for training & development; • Greater use of teamwork and flexible work systems; • More employee participation at the workplace; • More flexible compensation systems such as profit and gains sharing. RMIT-School of Management 23 Summary • Dual pressures: Financial concerns; Eventual outcome. • Mutual gains: Competitiveness; High standards of living. RMIT-School of Management 24 BUSM2449 International Human Resource Management Lecture 9 International performance management Lecture outline • MNCs performance management • Expatriate performance management • Criteria used for performance appraisal of international employees • Appraisal of HCN employees 2 MNE’s Performance management A process that enables the MNE to evaluate & continuously improve individual, subsidiary unit & corporate performance against clearly defined, pre-set goals & targets. By adopting a performance management approach, MNEs are building on the goal-setting strengths of managementby-objectives. 3 Figure 10-1 Perspectives, issues, actions and consequences in MNE performance management 4 MNE subsidiary performance constraints • • • • • • Whole versus part Non-comparable data Volatility of the global environment Separation by time and distance Variable levels of maturity Control and performance management 5 5 Figure 10-2 MNE control and performance 6 6 Expatriate performance management • Performance can be viewed as a combination of several variables: motivation, ability, working conditions & expectations. • When attempting to determine expat. performance, we need to consider: the compensation package; the task; HQ’s support; host environment; cultural adjustment: self and family. 7 Criteria used for performance appraisal of international employees Company goals job goals + standards influence the individual’s job analysis & job description. 1) Performance criteria a) Hard goals: are objective, quantifiable, & can be directly measured such as return-oninvestment (ROI), market shares, and so on. 8 MNE’s performance (cont.) • Links to organisation strategy HR planning. Job design and analysis • Setting individual performance goals Job analysis (JD); performance appraisal • Providing regular feed back on progress towards those goals performance appraisal • Providing opportunities for improving performance appraisal; training and development • Linking results and rewards performance appraisal; compensation 9 1) Performance criteria (cont.) b. Soft goals: tend to be relationship-based, such as leadership style or interpersonal skills. c. Contextual goals: attempt to take into consideration factors that result from the situation in which performance occurs, eg. changes of exchange rate, & host government policy on repatriation of profits. d. Using multiple criteria wherever possible is recommended. 10 Criteria used (cont.) 2) Who conducts the performance appraisal? • Employees are appraised by their immediate supervisors. • For subsidiary managers: they tend to be assessed according to subsidiary performance, with a reliance on hard criteria similar to that applied to heads of domestic units or divisions. 11 2) Who conducts the performance appraisal? (cont.) • Avoid favouring short-term performance to the detriment of longer-term organizational goals. • Appraisal of other expat. by CEO, host-country managers or the individual’s home-country manager, depending on the nature & level of the position concerned. • Multiple evaluators: the so-called 360-degree valuation. 12 360-Degree Evaluation Supervisors Other departments Individual Customers Colleagues 13 3) Performance feedback • Year-based evaluation cannot provide critical feedback for improvement. • More frequent evaluation in different patterns may be required for a better outcome. 14 Appraisal of HCN employees • Cultural applicability: using HCNs to assist in developing a suitable system for appraising the local staff in the subsidiary & to advise on the conduct of the appraisal. • The HCN manager is expected to perform a role that is conceptualized by a psychologically & physically distant parent company, but enacted in an environment with other role senders who are both psychologically & physically close. 15 Summary • HR management needs to recognize that technical competence is a necessary but not sufficient condition for successful performance in international management positions. • Cross-cultural interpersonal skills are equally important for international managers. • Effective evaluation should be through a system that is conscious of, & responds to, the organizational, national, & international elements we have explored so far. 16 BUSM2449 International Human Resource Management Lecture 10 International Business Ethics Lecture outline • Global business ethics • Corporate social responsibilities • Sustainable development in the global scale • New HR roles and responsibilities RMIT University© RMIT-School of Management 2 Global business ethics & social responsibility • Ethical relativism, absolutism or universalism • A good global citizen - standard criteria for MNC? • Corporate social responsibility RMIT University© RMIT-School of Management 3 Ethical relativism • there are no universal or international rights and wrongs • it all depends on a particular culture’s values and beliefs. • The slogan adopted by this group is ‘when in Rome, do as the Romans do’. RMIT University© RMIT-School of Management 4 Ethical absolutist/imperialist • The slogan: when in Rome, one should do what one would do at home, regardless of what the Romans do. • gives primacy to one’s own cultural values. • to be intolerant individuals who confuse respect for local traditions with ethical relativism. RMIT University© RMIT-School of Management 5 Ethical universalism • there are fundamental principles of right and wrong, which transcend cultural boundaries. • needs to distinguish between practices that are simply culturally different and those that are morally wrong. • Dilemma: often it is difficult to identify moral norms when operating in diverse cultural environment. • Once moral norms and justice claims are identified, it is easier to recognize and respect diversity where it is also morally appropriate to do so. RMIT University© RMIT-School of Management 6 Empirical implications 1) The difficulty: to identify moral norms which transcend cultural boundaries; then, without compromising those norms, recognize and respect diversity where it is morally appropriate to do so. 2) The useful way: to determine the ethical dimensions of a proposed project, policy, or behaviour is to consider consequences, as well as rights and justice claims, for all stakeholders. RMIT University© RMIT-School of Management 7 Empirical issues The Multinational as a global citizen: four fundamental core human values: - good citizenship; - respect for human dignity; - respect for basic rights; - equity. RMIT University© RMIT-School of Management 8 Examples workplace & environmental health & safety standards; the payment of basic living wages; equal employment opportunity; refraining from the use of child labour; providing basic employee training and education; allowing workers to organize & form unions. RMIT University© RMIT-School of Management 9 International accords & corporate codes of conduct The Caux Principles for Business Conduct (1994) by Japanese, EU and North American business leaders. Two basic ethical ideals: Kyosei: living and working together for the common goal; Human dignity: value of each person as an end, not simply as the means to the fulfillment of other’s purposes or even majority prescription. Promoting free trade, environmental & cultural integrity, preventing bribery & corruption. RMIT University© RMIT-School of Management 10 Firms’ self-regulatory codes a public statement of the firm’s values and guiding principles; responsible to employees around the world; employee participation and equal opportunity; responsible for communities; encourage better health & education; protect the environment and natural resources. RMIT University© RMIT-School of Management 11 Implications for the HR function of MNEs • Minimize the exposure of employees to corrupt conduct; • Ensure training programs cover areas of ethical concern; • Link appraisal and compensation with ethical stance; • Communicate the issues constantly with various staff moving across borders; • negotiating skills to handle problems. • Address the difference between corrupt bribery payments, gifts and allowable facilitation payments. RMIT University© RMIT-School of Management 12 Summary • A sense of global citizen: ‘thinking globally and acting locally’. RMIT University© RMIT-School of Management 13 International human resource management Lecture 11 October 3, 2012 IHRM Trends and issues Key takeaways for IHRM….the future • Finding and keeping talent will be one of the key challenges • Managing a diverse workforce will be a key • Need to understand the MNC’s employee value proposition • HR’s role as a strategic partner will grow: need to make HR policies support strategy • Researchers will have on-going challenges: convergence vs divergence 6/17/2015RMIT 2 Figure 12-1 Returning to topics of strategic HRM in MNEs IHRM Chapter 12 3 New IHR roles and responsibilities • Searching for global talent –the need to select, train and support international managers who are able to lead a diverse work force • Managing diversity –migrants, women and aged group • Managing ethical issues –enhancing corporate social responsibility –upholding ethical standards across global supply chains • Integrate HR strategy with business strategy 6/17/2015RMIT 4 Searching for global talent: good people are hard to attract and keep 6/17/2015RMIT 5 6/17/2015RMIT 6 CEO Views on talent Source PriceWaterhouseCoopers APEC CEO Survey 2011 6/17/2015RMIT 7 Managing female talent will be important work 6/17/2015RMIT 8 Organisational development…different capabilities 6/17/2015RMIT 9 Fewer new workers will pose challenges 6/17/2015RMIT 10 Managing diversity: how • What diversity? Migrants, women, aged • Why is this an issue for IHRM? • How to approach 6/17/2015RMIT 11 HR needs to define the right Employee Value Proposition 6/17/2015RMIT 12 US Leadership styles do not always translate well Asian and American Leadership Styles: How Are They Unique? Published:June 27, 2005 Author:D. Quinn Mills •Directive – •Well known in America, but declining in frequency. •The leader is very much in charge. •This style is very common in Asia. •Participative - teamwork with others, •more common in Europe, where it is sometimes required by law (as in northern Europe, especially Germany) •Varies by national cultural norms, eg Japan. •Empowering – relatively new, stresses delegation of responsibility to subordinates. •American companies that operate with largely autonomous divisions employ this style of leadership. •A few younger Asian business leaders now espouse this style (for example, the CEO of Banyan Tree Resorts). •Charismatic - the leader who looks like a leader. •People follow such a leader because of who he is, not because of good management or business success •What looks like a charismatic leader to Americans may be something very different to other societies. •Celebrity (superstar) – •slump in the United States right now due to the corporate financial reporting scandals, which have focused attention on CEOs with the ability to get things done right in the company 6/17/2015RMIT 13 Ethical issues: Stern Hu case The Rio Tinto court case highlighted the uncertainty of business dealings in China and afterwards offered little guidance for companies operating in the country, as no information about the commercial secrets they allegedly stole was released during the closed court trial. The four Rio employees, including Australian citizen Stern Hu, were jailed for accepting bribes and infringing commercial secrets during tense negotiations over iron ore prices in 2009. Rio Tinto promptly fired the four for "deplorable behaviour" but cleared itself in an internal audit of any wrongdoing. The commercial secrets portion of the trial was closed, even to Australian diplomats, despite consular agreements, and defence lawyers were reluctant to talk about it. According to a text of the Rio Tinto verdict, published by The Australian newspaper, the commercial secrets obtained by the four included discussions at meetings of the China Iron and Steel Association attended by numerous steel mill executives, and production cuts by Shougang Corp in Beijing which the defence countered had been published in Chinese newspapers. After almost a month of silence on the secrets convictions, Rio chief executive Tom Albanese made it clear at the company’s annual general meeting last Thursday that the miner believed that information it received from Chinese steelmakers was neither clearly secret, nor obtained illegally. “We know there are different definitions of business secrets in different countries, and also different cultural views on what are normal market information, and what is secret,” said Mr Albanese at the London AGM. 6/17/2015RMIT 14 Transparency International’s corruption perceptions index 6/17/2015RMIT 15 Partner in strategy delivery? HR roles • Planning • Staffing • Performance management • Training & Development • Compensation, remuneration & benefits • Industrial relations ‘Hard HRM’ convergence: Policy, structure, functions, etc. ‘Soft HRM’ divergence: Communication, culture, value, etc. 6/17/2015RMIT 16 Theoretical development Two streams of inquiry: • the micro-level: HRM activities, particularly expatriate management; • the macro-level: a more strategic focus with national and international implications. School of Management 17 Research challenges • Strategic IHRM; • Cross-cultural HRM (cross-country and multi-cultural environments): –Eg. Commonality (emic) vs. differences (etic); • Organizational restructuring and the impact on IHRM (eg. merger and acquisitions, global partnerships); Example: Rio Tinto • HRM in different countries and comparison between countries. School of Management 18 Possible outcomes • ‘Hard HRM’ convergence: –Policy, structure, functions, etc. • ‘Soft HRM’ divergence: –Communication, culture, value, etc. School of Management 19 Summary • The challenges for IHRM are profound; • IHRM is complex and is a crucial factor for successful international business; • A sense of global citizen: ‘thinking globally and acting locally’. School of Management 20